Dana Mohammed Tofiq*
Raouf Rahim Mirza**
Ali Hattem Hussain***
Zaid Ramadhan Mohammed****
*Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Sulaimani
** Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Sulaimani
***Sulaimani Technical College, Sulaimani Polytechnique University
**** Kirkuk Directorate of Health
Perinatal Outcome of Breech Presentation at the Maternity Teaching Ho spital in Erbil City
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting many organ systems with diverse
clinical manifestations in association with autoantibodies to components of the cell nucleus. Cytokines, like
interferon-α and interleukin-6, are important components of immune response regulation and their imbalance
play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease.
To compare the serum levels of interferon-α and interleukin-6 in systemic lupus erythematosus patients and
the apparently healthy subjects, and to find out the correlation between the serum levels of the two cytokines
and the disease activity according to systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index.
A cross-sectional analytic study conducted on 37 systemic lupus erythematosus patients. The patients
were investigated for the serum level of the two cytokines, and the results were compared with those of 31
apparently healthy subjects. Then, the disease activity was measured in the patients according to systemic
lupus erythematosus disease activity index and arranged into groups of different disease activity, and their
corresponding cytokine levels were compared.
The serum levels of interferon-α and interleukin-6, in systemic lupus erythematosus patients were significantly
higher than those of the healthy subjects (37.26 ± 27.58 IU/ml), (18.09 ± 21.02 pg/ml) respectively in the patients,
and (13.29 ± 23.63 IU/ml), (7.10 ± 19.80 pg/ml) respectively in the healthy subjects, with p-values of (< 0.001)
and (0.031) respectively. Eight (21.6%) of systemic lupus erythematosus patients had inactive disease,
9 (24.3%) had mild to moderately active disease, and 20 (54.1%) had highly active disease. There
were a significant positive correlation between the serum levels of interleukin-6 and systemic lupus
erythematosus disease activity, with p-value of (0.016), while there were no significant correlation
between the serum levels of interferon-α and disease activity, with p-value of (0.734).
The serum levels of both cytokines in systemic lupus erythematosus patients are significantly higher than their
levels in the serum of healthy subjects, and interleukin-6 is significantly correlated with the systemic lupus
erythematosus disease activity.
Keywords: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Interferon-α (IFN-α), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Systemic lupus
erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI).